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A business loan is a loan specifically intended for business purposes. As with all loans, it involves the creation of a debt, which will be repaid with added interest. There are a number of different types of business loans, including bank loans, mezzanine financing, asset-based financing, invoice financing, microloans, business cash advances and cash flow loans. A bank loan may be obtained from a bank and may be either secured or unsecured. For secured loans, banks will require collateral, which may be lost if repayments are not made. The bank will probably wish to see the business’s accounts, balance sheet and business plan, as well as studying the principals' credit histories. Many smaller businesses are now however turning towards Alternative Finance Providers, especially in the case of smaller firms.Loans from credit unions may be referred to as bank loans as well. Business loans from credit unions received the second highest level of satisfaction from borrowers after loans from small banks. The second largest market is in Euro denominated corporate bonds. Other markets tend to be small by comparison and are usually not well developed, with low trading volumes. Many corporations from other countries issue in either US Dollars or Euros. Foreign corporates issuing bonds in the US Dollar market are called Yankees and their bonds are Yankee bonds. The coupon (i.e. interest payment) is usually taxable for the investor. It is tax deductible for the corporation paying it. For US Dollar corporates, the coupon is almost always semi annual, while Euro denominated corporates pay coupon quarterly.High Grade corporate bonds usually trade on credit spread. Credit spread is the difference in yield between the bond and an underlying US Treasury bond (for US Dollar corporates) of similar maturity. Credit spread is the extra yield an investor earns over a risk free instrument (US Treasury) as a compensation for the extra risk. Compared to government bonds, corporate bonds generally have a higher risk of default. This risk depends on the particular corporation issuing the bond, the current market conditions and governments to which the bond issuer is being compared and the rating of the company. Corporate bond holders are compensated for this risk by receiving a higher yield than government bonds. The difference in yield (called credit spread) reflects the higher probability of default, the expected loss in the event of default, and may also reflect liquidity and risk premia. Credit Spread Risk: The risk that the credit spread of a bond (extra yield to compensate investors for taking default risk), which is inherent in the fixed coupon, becomes insufficient compensation for default risk that has later deteriorated. As the coupon is fixed the only way the credit spread can readjust to new circumstances is by the market price of the bond falling and the yield rising to such a level that an appropriate credit spread is offered. Interest Rate Risk: The level of Yields generally in a bond market, as expressed by Government Bond Yields, may change and thus bring about changes in the market value of Fixed-Coupon bonds so that their Yield to Maturity adjusts to newly appropriate levels.Liquidity Risk: There may not be a continuous secondary market for a bond, thus leaving an investor with difficulty in selling at, or even near to, a fair price. This particular risk could become more severe in developing markets, where a large amount of junk bonds belong, such as India, Vietnam, Indonesia, etc.Supply Risk: Heavy issuance of new bonds similar to the one held may depress their prices.Inflation Risk: Inflation reduces the real value of future fixed cash flows. An anticipation of inflation, or higher inflation, may depress prices immediately. Tax Change Risk: Unanticipated changes in taxation may adversely impact the value of a bond to investors and consequently its immediate market value. Credit is your ability to borrow money (or get something now and pay later). You’re probably familiar with the concept when it comes to your personal credit scores, but credit for your business is separate from your personal credit – at least it should be..A strong business credit profile doesn’t just help you secure a loan; it’s also important for attracting new business. Unlike with personal credit reports, anyone — including potential customers, partners and suppliers — can look at your business credit report. Those parties look at your report as an employer would an individual’s resume. How to build business credit . Keep your information current with all three credit bureaus. There are several credit bureaus that collect data and create business credit scores. Establish trade lines with your suppliers.If you buy supplies, ingredients or other materials from third-party vendors, those purchases could help build your business credit. Many suppliers extend trade credit, which means they allow you to pay several days or weeks after you receive the inventory. Make payments to creditors on time or early. Although each credit bureau uses slightly different methods of crunching business credit scores, all of them consider your history of paying creditors. To ensure a good score, make sure your payments are on time or, even better, early. Borrow from lenders that report to credit bureaus. Keep your public records clean. Mind your personal credit rating. Apply for credit before you need it. Grow your credit and use it. Forge relationships with more than one lender. Remember that traditional banks are not your only shot at credit, Wright says. There are a growing number of other options, such as securing investors, like Deutschmann did. Other resources include asset-based lenders, which focus more on collateral rather than credit worthiness, factoring -- which lets you borrow against your accounts receivables.Keep things separate, Better terms, Better financing, Increased sales. How do you build credit for a business?How do you check your business credit score for free?How can a business get credit?How do I build up my business credit without using my personal credit?How do I start a business credit file?How do you build credit fast?What is the best business credit card to have?How can you tell if a company is legit?Can you get a business credit card for a new business?How do I get a DUNS number for my business? A bond is a debt investment in which an investor loans money to an entity (typically corporate or governmental) which borrows the funds for a defined period of time at a variable or fixed interest rate. Bonds are used by companies, municipalities, states and sovereign governments to raise money and finance a variety of projects and activities. Owners of bonds are debtholders, or creditors, of the issuer. When companies or other entities need to raise money to finance new projects, maintain ongoing operations, or refinance existing other debts, they may issue bonds directly to investors instead of obtaining loans from a bank. The indebted entity (issuer) issues a bond that contractually states the interest rate (coupon) that will be paid and the time at which the loaned funds (bond principal) must be returned (maturity date). Business service bonds are great marketing tools used by legitimate businesses to stand out from the competition, and purchasing one can be the difference between winning a job or losing out to your competition. Almost all potential clients require proof that a business is bonded prior to awarding them the job, because having a bond demonstrates trustworthiness and credibility to both current and future clients. The most important thing to consider when deciding how much coverage you need is where your company will be providing service. Because business service bonds protect your clients from theft committed by one of your employees, some business types require greater bond amounts than others.